Hermetic Astrology Appendix IV

The Sidereal Zodiac as the Authentic Astrological Zodiac

In Chapter 6 the reincarnation example Haroun al-Rashid/Francis Bacon was studied, from which it emerged that certain planetary positions in the sidereal zodiac at the birth of Francis Bacon aligned with those in the sidereal zodiac at birth/death of Haroun al-Rashid, the former incarnation of Francis Bacon. The method applied in this comparison is based on the following:

  1. Fundamental principle: the positions of the planets in the zodiac-or their opposite zodiacal positions-at birth/death in one incarnation are taken up by the planets (not necessarily the same planets) at birth/death in the next incarnation, and even in later subsequent incarnations. The fulfilment of this fundamental principle yields zodiacal alignments, i.e. alignments of planets either on the same side or on opposite sides of the zodiac.

  2. According to this fundamental principle, compare the zodiacal positions of the planets at birth/death in one incarnation for alignments with those at birth/death in the next (or subsequent) incarnation(s)

    in the sidereal zodiac (S), and
    in the tropical zodiac (T).

(Here the word alignment signifies that a planet's position in the zodiac at birth/death in one incarnation is either the same, or is diametrically opposite in the zodiac, when compared with its or another planet's position at birth/death in another incarnation. It need not be the same planet which aligns at a given zodiacal degree, and the Moon's nodes can also be taken into consideration when looking for zodiacal alignments.) Owing to the precession of the equinoxes, the sidereal zodiac and the tropical zodiac-which coincided in the year A.D. 221*-are shifting apart at a rate of approximately 1 degree every 72 years. The present divergence between them is 24½ degrees, since in 1983 the vernal point (the zero point-0° Aries-of the tropical zodiac) was located at exactly 5½° Pisces,* i.e in 1983 the vernal point was exactly 24½ = (30 - 5 1/2) degrees from 0° Aries in the sidereal zodiac. Precession is thus a factor to be reckoned with in the comparison of zodiacal planetary positions at birth/death in one incarnation with those at birth/death in the next (or subsequent) incarnation(s).

For example, if a period of 720 years has elapsed between two successive incarnations, this means that precession amounts to some 10 degrees (10 x 72 = 720).

In this case, if a comparison of planetary positions is made in the sidereal zodiac (S) and in the tropical zodiac (T), then in the event of a planetary alignment in the sidereal zodiac (S), there will be 10 degrees difference between the zodiacal positions in the tropical zodiac (T)-and vice versa. The longer the period between incarnations, the greater the difference between the compared planetary positions in (S) and in (T) will be, owing to precession. Thus, if 1440 years have elapsed between two successive incarnations, the difference arising between (S) and (T) in the comparison of planetary positions will amount to 20 degrees (20 x 72 = 1440), on account of the 20 degrees of precession.

The method of comparison-through several incarnations-of planetary positions in the zodiac at birth/death, looking for planetary alignments in the sidereal zodiac (S) and in the tropical zodiac (T), is an objective method for discovering which zodiac is the authentic astrological zodiac. This method is objective provided that the reincarnation examples are true. Thus it depends upon the authenticity of the reincarnation examples, and upon whether accurate birth and death dates of the personalities in question in the given reincarnation examples are available.

The method is based upon a general karmic-astrological principle formulated by Rudolf Steiner, which was quoted in Chapter 6:

When a person passes through the gate of death he dies under a certain configuration of stars. This configuration is significant for his further life of soul because it remains there as an imprint. In his soul there remains the endeavour to enter into this same configuration at a new birth, to do justice once again to the forces received at the moment of death. It is an interesting point that if one works out the configuration at death and compares it with the configuration of the later birth, one finds that it coincides to a high degree with the configuration at the former death.

When the author learnt of the existence of the above-formulated general karmic-astrological principle, he began to search for its concrete manifestation, and it thus served as the basis for astrological research. The first concrete manifestation emerged in 1974, with the discovery of the first "law" of reincarnation (see Chapter 6, and also Appendix III). The first "law" of reincarnation involves the angular relationship between the Sun and Saturn, and is independent of the zodiacal background of these two planets. Therefore the first "law" of reincarnation can be applied regardless of whether the sidereal zodiac or the tropical zodiac is used, i.e. whichever zodiac is used, the angular relationship between the Sun and Saturn is unaffected.

After discovering the first "law" of reincarnation, the author then found a second concrete manifestation of the above-formulated general karmic-astrological principle-namely, the extended first "law" of reincarnation, which concerns the zodiacal alignments of the Sun and Saturn. However, in the application of the extended first "law" of reincarnation (see Appendix III) it does make a difference which zodiac is used.

The extended first "law" of reincarnation concerns the zodiacal alignment of the Sun and Saturn from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation, where Saturn and/or the Sun can align with Saturn and/or the Sun either on the same side or on opposite sides of the zodiac. In Figure 29 four examples of the extended first "law» of reincarnation are shown. These four examples indicate the four possible combinations of alignment of the Sun (SU) and Saturn (SA) from death (t) in one incarnation to birth (*) in the next incarnation. Summarizing, these four possibilities are:

*SA aligns with t SA.  This is shown as birth (xi) in Figure 29.

*SA aligns with t SU.  This is shown as birth (ix) in Figure 29.

*SU aligns with t SA.  This is shown as birth (viii) in Figure 29.

*SU aligns with t SU.  This is shown as birth (x) in Figure 29.

In these four examples shown in Figure 29 the alignment is in each case on the same side of the zodiac, but it could just as well be on opposite sides of the zodiac. The question is: In which zodiac does the alignment take place? Does the zodiacal alignment between the Sun and Saturn-in the four combinations listed above, as stated in the extended first "law» of reincarnation-take place in the tropical or in the sidereal zodiac?

Here the question is put with regard to zodiacal alignments of the Sun and Saturn from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation, but more generally it can be put with regard to their zodiacal alignment not only from death to birth but also from birth/death in one incarnation to birth/death in the next incarnation, or in a later incarnation, or even in an earlier incarnation. That is, the comparison of birth/death charts in different incarnations can be made not just between successive incarnations but also between any incarnations for which birth and/or death dates are recorded. What is the justification for extending the comparison of birth/death charts-looking for zodiacal alignments involving the Sun and/or Saturn-beyond successive incarnations to include other incarnations?

The general karmic-astrological principle-as formulated by Rudolf Steiner (quoted above)-applies specifically to death in one incarnation and birth in the next incarnation. The first concrete manifestation of this principle-discovered in 1974-was the first "law" of reincarnation. Following this discovery, however, the author noticed the principle of zodiacal alignment of certain planets when comparing the zodiacal positions of these planets at death in one incarnation with their zodiacal positions at birth in the next incarnation. The extended first "law" of reincarnation is a special case of this, involving zodiacal alignments specifically of the Sun and Saturn. (A second special case, involving heliocentric zodiacal alignments of Mercury and Venus, will be discussed later in this appendix.) These zodiacal alignments were found to take place in the sidereal zodiac. In this appendix this finding is documented by looking at a number of reincarnation examples in terms of both the sidereal zodiac and the tropical zodiac, and making a comparison between them.

At this point the author would like to acknowledge Willi Sucher, who long ago-in a lecture held in Forest Row, England, in 1974-indicated the principle of zodiacal alignment of planets between death in one incarnation and birth in the next incarnation. Willi Sucher had also noticed that these alignments take place in the sidereal zodiac and not in the tropical zodiac. However, he did not utilize the equal-division signs of the sidereal zodiac, but referred the planetary positions to the unequal-length zodiacal constellations. It is only recently that the equal-division sidereal zodiac has re-emerged and become more widely known.* With the re-emergence of the sidereal zodiac the possibility is now given for an exact comparison of zodiacal alignments between birth/death configurations in different incarnations. (In terms of the unequal-length zodiacal constellations-not being divided into degrees-only an approximate comparison of zodiacal alignments is possible, made in terms of approximate locations within the constellations, unless the tropical zodiac is called to assistance in the delineation of degree positions.)

It was thus-stimulated by Willi Sucher's indication, and equipped with the equal-division sidereal zodiac-that the author's early research work into the foundations of astrology began. This research work soon yielded conclusive evidence that it is indeed the sidereal zodiac, and not the tropical zodiac, which is the authentic astrological zodiac-as will emerge from the documentation of some of this evidence below. From this early research work it became clear, moreover, that zodiacal alignments occur not just between death in one incarnation and birth in the next incarnation but also between birth and/or death in one incarnation and birth and/or death in the next incarnation, and that often the alignments may be carried over into later subsequent incarnations. The frequency of zodiacal alignments is greater, of course, when the incarnations are successive. Nevertheless, as may be seen from the following examples, zodiacal alignments may occur between incarnations widely separated in time, with one or more intervening (often historically unknown) incarnations in between. In making comparison of planetary positions at birth/death in different incarnations, the greater the time-span between incarnations, the more pronouncedly evident it becomes that the alignments are in terms of the sidereal zodiac and not the tropical zodiac. 

How is the carrying over of the principle of zodiacal alignment not just from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation but from birth/death in one incarnation to birth/death in the next (or subsequent) incarnation(s) to be understood? 

According to Rudolf Steiner, the incarnating human being seeks out a planetary configuration at his birth which bears a similarity with that at death in his preceding incarnation. One concrete manifestation of this general karmic-astrological principle-as expressed by the first "law" of reincarnation-is that the angular relationship between the Sun and Saturn is carried over, either as the same angle, or as the complementary angle with respect to 180 degrees. Another manifestation of this is the principle of zodiacal alignment. Zodiacal alignment is a more general karmic-astrological principle, although here again a concrete manifestation occurs with the extended first "law" of reincarnation, which involves zodiacal alignments between the Sun and/or Saturn at death in one incarnation and the Sun and/or Saturn at birth in the next incarnation.

The general karmic-astrological principle formulated by Rudolf Steiner, and coming to expression in the phenomenon of zodiacal alignments, is based on the fact that prior to incarnation the incarnating human being looks back to the planetary configuration at death in his preceding incarnation when choosing the new planetary configuration at birth in his oncoming incarnation. But it is not only the planetary configuration at death in his immediately preceding incarnation that he beholds, although this (as the most recent) is certainly the planetary configuration that impresses itself most deeply on him. In addition, he also beholds the planetary configuration at birth in his immediately preceding incarnation, and this also is a most important influence in his choice of a planetary configuration for the new, oncoming incarnation. Thus both planetary configurations-not only that at death but also that at birth in the immediately preceding incarnation-are determining influences in the choice of a new birth configuration, as is evident from a study of reincarnation examples such as the following. (The choice of reincarnation examples depends upon whether birth and/or death dates in various incarnations are known.)

Moreover, in looking back and beholding the planetary configurations at birth/death in the previous incarnation-in terms of arriving at zodiacal alignments for the new, oncoming incarnation-zodiacal alignments from still earlier incarnations, which were of significance to the human being in the past, may also play a role. In this way, the planetary configurations at birth/death of incarnations prior to the immediately preceding incarnation may also be of significance for the incarnating human being in his choice of a new birth configuration-although, of course, the birth and death configurations of the immediately preceding incarnation generally exert the strongest influence with regard to making this choice.

Thus it is certainly justified to make comparisons of planetary positions at birth/death between incarnations that are widely separated in time with intervening (perhaps unknown) incarnations in between. Not so many zodiacal alignments can be expected as in the case of comparing successive incarnations but nevertheless some zodiacal alignments do occur in the case of comparing non-successive incarnations, as may be seen from the following examples.

When the author started making these comparisons in his search for the foundations of astrology, he noticed that zodiacal alignments occur not only between the geocentric positions of the planets at birth/death, but also between their heliocentric positions. This was confirmation for the author of Willi Sucher's indication of the importance of the heliocentric planetary movements.* On the basis of birth/death chart comparisons in reincarnation examples it seems that the heliocentric planetary positions are important, and that they must be taken into consideration as well as the geocentric positions. The author discovered, further, that in general there is a tendency for the geocentric planetary positions at birth in one incarnation to align with the heliocentric planetary positions at birth/death in the preceding incarnation (see Chapters 6 and 7 for examples of this). This occurrence of heliocentric-geocentric alignments provides a basis in looking for zodiacal alignments-although, of course, it does not in any way diminish the importance of straightforward geocentric-geocentric and heliocentric-heliocentric alignments. In addition, the fourth possible kind of zodiacal alignment is geocentric-heliocentric, which also appears sometimes to be of significance.

The further refinement of using the hermetic chart (based on the EgyptianTychonic system) rather than the heliocentric chart in astrological karma research is the subject of discussion in Appendix V. In this appendix (Appendix IV) it is simply a matter of testing which zodiac-the sidereal or the tropical zodiac-is the authentic astrological zodiac. The method of testing, as exemplified already in Chapter 6 with respect to the reincarnation example Haroun al-Rashid/Francis Bacon, is to compare certain geocentric/heliocentric planetary positions at birth/death in one incarnation with those at birth/death in the next (or in subsequent) incarnation(s) in terms of the sidereal zodiac (S)

and in terms of the tropical zodiac (T) looking to see in terms of which zodiac the zodiacal alignments occur.

The reincarnation examples looked at here (in Appendix IV), as with the examples listed in Appendix III, all stem from Rudolf Steiner, whom-as mentioned in Appeindix III-the author considers to be completely reliable. It is clear to the author that the objectivity of the research findings established in Appendix III and in this appendix (Appendix IV) depend upon the truth of Rudolf Steiner's reincarnation research, i.e. it depends upon the reincarnation examples he presented being completely authentic. (As they formed the initial basis for this astrological research work into the foundations of astrology, it is evident that as far as the author is concerned Rudolf Steiner's reincarnation examples are true.) As far as the author knows, no other published source exists-such as Rudolf Steiner's eight-volume work Karmic Relationships-listing so many reincarnation examples. The reader must read this work himself, if he wishes to be able to judge for himself whether Rudolf Steiner's reincarnation examples are genuine.

For those who read German, there is also the series of volumes by Wolfgang Schuchhardt, Schicksal in wiederholten Erdenleben ("Destiny in repeated earthly lives"), published by the Philosophisch-Anthroposophisch Verlag, Dornach, Switzerland, containing "karma biographies" of the historical personalities mentioned by Rudolf Steiner in his work Karmic Relationships. These "karma biographies" are written as biographies which take account of the preceding incarnations, whereby character and destiny in the last (i.e. latest) incarnation are studied in relation to the character and destiny (when historically known) from the previous incarnations. For example, in Volume III (Dornach, 1983) of Wolfgang Schuchhardt's work, the life of Ralph Waldo Emerson is appraised in the light of his two preceding incarnations as Matilda of Tuscany (tenth/eleventh centuries) and Tacitus (first/second centuries), which is most illuminating in this case as much is known historically concerning all three historical personalities. These "karma biographies» can thus be a help to appreciate biographically the truth of Rudolf Steiner's reincarnation examples.

Criteria pertaining to the reincarnation examples used in this research:

The reincarnation examples used in the research work documented in this appendix are all chosen from Rudolf Steiner's Karmic Relationships, and many of them are listed in Appendix Ill (see Table 18). However, owing to the special nature of the research undertaken in this appendix-to determine whether the sidereal zodiac or the tropical zodiac is the authentic astrological zodiac-not all of the reincarnation examples shown in Table 18 are suitable. Only those examples where at least 576 years have elapsed between incarnations are taken into consideration, in which case at least 8 degrees of precession have accrued (8 x 72 = 576, allowing a precession rate of one degree in 72 years). The reason for applying this criterion of selection is that in order to distinguish between zodiacal alignments in the sidereal zodiac (S) and the tropical zodiac (T), the difference arising between planetary positions in (S) and in (T)-arising through precession in the period of time elapsing between incarnations-must be large enough (e.g. 8 degrees) to be readily discernable.

In the case of reincarnation example (8) in Table 18-Raphael/Novalis-the period between death in Raphael's incarnation and birth in Novalis' incarnation amounts to only 252 years. At a rate of precession of one degree in 72 years, precession in these 252 years amounted to only 3½ degrees, since 3½ x 72 = 252. The 3½-degree difference arising between the sidereal and tropical zodiacs over 252 years is too small to yield a noticeable difference in comparing zodiacal alignments in terms of the sidereal zodiac (S) and the tropical zodiac (T). Therefore, reincarnation example (8) from Table 18 is not included among the following examples.

For the same reason, reincarnation examples (2), (5), (7), (10) and (12) from Table 18 are also excluded from the comparison of zodiacal alignments carried out in this appendix. This leaves six reincarnation examples from Table 18 as eligible for the comparison of zodiacal alignments. These six examples are listed in Table 21.

Table 21

Reincarnation examples for the comparison of zodiacal alignments together with interval (in years) between incarnations and corresponding precession (in degrees), where the average rate of precession is one degree in 72 years.

       
example historical personalities Interval (years)  degrees of precession
(1) Beatrice of Tuscany/Herman Grimm 752 10½ °
(3) Pope Gregory VII/Ernst Haeckel 749 10 ⅓°
(4) Haroun al-Rashid/Francis Bacon 752 10 ½ °
(6) Matilda of Tuscany/Ralph Waldo Emerson 688 9 ½ °
(9) St. Thomas Aquinas/Rudolf Steiner  587 8 ¼ °
(11) St. Hildegard of Bingen/Vladimir Soloviev 674 9 ⅓°

 

In Table 21 six of the reincarnation examples discussed in Appendix Ill are listed as eligible for the comparison of planetary positions over incarnations widely separated in time. The reincarnation examples presented in Appendix III (see Table 18) comprise those examples-mentioned by Rudolf Steiner directly or indirectly (see Appendix III) in his eight-volume work Karmic Relationship-in which the date of death in one incarnation and the date of birth in the next incarnation are known. These reincarnation examples actually comprise only a fraction of the examples spoken of by Rudolf Steiner in Karmic Relationships. For many of the remaining examples-owing to lack of dates-no comparison of planetary positions between incarnations is possible. However, in some of the remaining examples to be found in Karmic Relationship dates of birth and/or death in one incarnation and dates of birth and/or death in another, later incarnation are known, without dates of birth/death in the intervening incarnation(s) being known. Such cases provide additional reincarnation examples to be added to the six eligible examples from Appendix III listed in Table 21, and-moreover-they prove to be highly eligible on account of the lengthy time-spans between the incarnations for which dates are known. These reincarnation examples-six in number-are listed in Table 22.

The six reincarnation examples from Table 22, together with the six eligible examples listed in Table 21, comprise a total of twelve reincarnation examples to be studied. Given these twelve reincarnation examples, what is the procedure-methodically-of looking for zodiacal alignments between birth/death planetary positions in one incarnation and birth/death planetary positions in another incarnation? The problem is basically that of looking for zodiacal alignments in the sidereal zodiac (S) on the one hand and in the tropical zodiac (T) on the other hand. Here there are four possible kinds of alignment to be taken into consideration in the two zodiacs, namely:

g →  g: geocentric in one incarnation with geocentric in a later incarnation

h → h: heliocentric in one incarnation with heliocentric in a later incarnation

Table 22

Additional reincarnation examples for the comparison of zodiacal alignments together with interval (in years) between incarnations and corresponding precession (in degrees), where the average rate of precession is one degree in 72 years. Brief biographies of the twelve historical personalities listed in this table, together with references to them in Rudolf Steiner's karma lectures, are documented at the end of this appendix.

       
example historical personalities Interval (years) degrees of precession
(a) Julian the Apostate/Tycho Brahe 1183 16 ½°
(b) Mu'awiya/Woodrow Wilson 1176 16 ⅓°
(c) Nero/Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria 1790 24 ¾°
(d) Ovid/Laurence Oliphant 1930 26 ¾°
(e) Plato/Karl Julius Schroer 2171 30°
(f) Socrates/Christian Oeser 2189 30¼°

 

h →  g: heliocentric in one incarnation with geocentric in a later incarnation

g →  h: geocentric in one incarnation with heliocentric in a later incarnation

This yields eight combinations of planetary positions, through looking for zodiacal alignments (the above four kinds) in terms of two zodiacs-(S) and (T). On account of this large number of combinations, the comparison of birth/death planetary positions with those in the next (or in a later) incarnation-looking for zodiacal alignments in terms of (S) and (T)-inevitably yields large numbers of random zodiacal alignments, occurring purely by chance. For example, an exact zodiacal alignment of a given planet may occur in terms of (S) and, at the same time, an exact zodiacal alignment of another planet may occur in terms of (T). Since only one of the two zodiacs-either (S) or (T)-is authentic, then in this example one of the alignments in genuine, whilst the other is random, a chance occurrence. To illustrate what is meant here, and to show that this is a very real problem, let us consider some specific examples.

In Appendix III, when reincarnation example (II)-Hildegard of Bingen/Vladimir Soloviev-was being considered, it was remarked upon that g-Uranus at the birth (*) of Soloviev aligned exactly with the position of g-Uranus in the sidereal zodiac at the death (t) of Hildegard of Bingen. This zodiacal alignment can be expressed as:

S: t g-UR = *g-UR = 12AR

(12AR indicates that the alignment took place at 12° Aries, and S denotes the sidereal zodiac.)

Similarly, in reincarnation example (b) from Table 22-Mu'awiya/Woodrow Wilson-there is again an exact zodiacal alignment of the planet Uranus geocentrically in the sidereal zodiac from the death of Mu'awiya to the birth of Woodrow Wilson, which can be expressed as:

S: t g-UR = *g-UR = 29AR (29AR = 29° Aries)

Having noticed the zodiacal alignment of g-Uranus in reincarnation example (11), and then finding it again in reincarnation example (b), would seem to indicate that this alignment in the sidereal zodiac is authentic. However, looking at the geocentric planetary positions in the tropical zodiac in example (b) reveals an exact zodiacal alignment of the planet Saturn geocentrically in the tropical zodiac from the death of Mu'awiya to the birth of Woodrow Wilson, which can be expressed as:

T: t g-SA = *g-SA = 12CN (12CN = 12° Cancer)

Of these two exact alignments in example (b), one of them is genuine and the other is random (pure chance). But which is the authentic alignment and which is a matter of pure chance? Only one of the two zodiacs-either the sidereal zodiac (S) or the tropical zodiac (T)-is the authentic astrological zodiac. If (S) is authentic, then it is the zodiacal alignment of g-Uranus which is genuine, whereas if (T) is the authentic astrological zodiac, then it is the zodiacal alignment of g-Saturn which is genuine.

 

As a second illustration of this dilemma, let us consider reincarnation example (d)-Ovid/Laurence Oliphant. In this example-in contrast to most other reincarnation examples, where only dates of birth and/or death are known-not only the birth date but also the time of Ovid's birth is known, and not only the death date but also the time of Laurence Oliphant's death is known. (However, neither Ovid's death date nor Laurence Oliphant's birth date is known.) Knowing the time as well as the date enables the planetary positions to be calculated accurately, whereas normally-if only the date is known-planetary positions are calculated for midday of the given date, thus yielding approximate planetary positions. In comparing the positions of the slower-moving planets-such as Saturn and Uranus-it does not make much difference when only their midday positions instead of their positions actually at the moment of birth/death are calculated, as neither planet moves more than about 8 minutes in the zodiac on a given date. However, for the Moon it makes quite a difference, as the Moon moves swiftly through the zodiac, and may travel up to 15 degrees on a given date. Thus, when planetary positions are computed for midday on a given date, the Moon's position may be up to 7 ½ degrees out, as between midday and midnight the Moon can travel up to 7½ degrees in the zodiac. That is, the computed Moon's position for midday may differ by as much as 7 ½ degrees from its actual position (if birth/death took place around midnight).

In reincarnation example (d), Ovid-the poet of love in ancient Rome, during the reign of Augustus-is said to have been born when the planet Venus was rising, thus fixing the time of day at which he was born. Ovid later reincarnated in the nineteenth century-after an intervening incarnation as a woman-as the journalist and author Laurence Oliphant, whose time of death was recorded. The position of the Moon at Ovid's birth is therefore accurate, and similarly it is accurate at the death of Laurence Oliphant. In fact, in this example there was an exact alignment of the Moon at 7/8 ° Leo of the sidereal zodiac:

S: *MO = t MO = 7/8LE.

However, at the same time, looking at the planetary positions in the tropical zodiac in reincarnation example (d), there was an exact alignment geocentrically of the planet Venus at 13 ° Aquarius:

T: *g-VE = tg-VE = I3AQ.

This raises the question: Which of these two zodiacal alignments is genuine, that of the Moon in the sidereal zodiac, or that of Venus in the tropical zodiac?

In order to answer this, and thereby to settle the question as to which of the two zodiacs is the authentic astrological zodiac, there is little point in comparing all possible combinations of zodiacal alignments, as this produces too many random alignments, occurring purely by chance. Instead, specific kinds of zodiacal alignments must be looked for, those which occur according to some kind of "rule" or "law". The extended first "law» or reincarnation-discussed in Appendix III-is an example of such an astrological reincarnation "law", and this can be taken as the basis for a search for zodiacal alignments of a particular kind in order to assess whether the alignments occur in the sidereal zodiac (S) or in the tropical zodiac (T). The extended first "law" of reincarnation involves zodiacal alignments of Saturn and/or the Sun at death in one incarnation with Saturn and/or the Sun at birth in the next incarnation, but as discussed earlier in this appendix, it may happen that there is a tendency for this "law" to be carried over to incarnations that are widely separated in time with intervening incarnations in between. On this basis, it is meaningful to look for zodiacal alignments of the Sun and Saturn throughout all the reincarnation examples listed in Tables 21 and 22, in order to see whether such alignments-if they take place at all-tend to take place in terms of the sidereal zodiac or in terms of the tropical zodiac. This offers a means for objectively testing which of the two zodiacs is the authentic astrological zodiac.

Before looking at all the reincarnation examples listed in Tables 21 and 22, let us consider just one example, in order to develop an appropriate method of procedure. Thus, as an example of the zodiacal alignment of the Sun and Saturn-this time not from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation, as formulated by the extended first "law" of reincarnation, but over incarnations widely separated in time-let us consider example (f) from Table 22. This is the reincarnation example: Socrates/Christian Oeser. 2189 years elapsed between the death of Socrates and the birth of Christian Oeser, amounting to 30¼ degrees of precession. Therefore, in looking for zodiacal alignments between birth/death in the Socrates incarnation and birth/death in the Christian Oeser incarnation-in the sidereal zodiac (S) and in the tropical zodiac (T)-an alignment in terms of one zodiac means a difference of about 30 degrees in terms of the other zodiac, as may be seen from the tabulation of planetary positions in this reincarnation example (see Table 23).

Table 23

Positions of the Sun (SU) and Saturn (SA) at birth (*) and death ( in terms of the sidereal zodiac (S) and the tropical zodiac (T), where h denotes heliocentric and g denotes geocentric. See Table 18 notes for abbreviations of the zodiacal signs. See Appendix VII for the computation of geocentric and heliocentric planetary positions in both the sidereal zodiac and the tropical zodiac, where the birth/death positions of the Sun and Saturn in these examples are listed exactly (degree and minute in the zodiacal signs)-in the following table they are listed only to the nearest degree. Zodiacal alignments are italicised.

               
    *SU *g-SA *h-SA t SU t g-SA t h-SA
Socrates S: 2GE 15LE 21LE 14P1 7SG 1SG
  T: 22TA 6LE I2LE 6P1 28SC 23SC
Chr.Oeser S: 1GE 25P1 20PI 19AR 22P1 19PI
  T: 23GE 17AR 11AR 12TA 14AR 12AR

 

The planetary positions in Table 23 for the reincarnation example Socrates/Christian Oeser indicate a definite zodiacal alignment of the Sun and Saturn in the sidereal zodiac. The position of the Sun in the sidereal zodiac at the birth of Christian Oeser is almost identical with its position in the sidereal zodiac at the birth of Socrates, and aligns almost exactly (on the opposite side of the sidereal zodiac) with the heliocentric position of Saturn at the death of Socrates. This alignment in the sidereal zodiac can be expressed as:

S: *SU = *SU and t h-SA / *SU (/ denotes alignment on opposite sides of the zodiac)

(/ is used to represent the symbol here)

As may be seen from Table 23, the corresponding positions of the Sun and Saturn in the tropical zodiac are some 30 degrees apart. In addition to the above alignment, from Table 23 it can also be seen that the position of the Sun in the sidereal zodiac at the death of Socrates is only 6 degrees from the heliocentric position of Saturn in the sidereal zodiac at the birth of Christian Oeser, which in turn is almost identical with its heliocentric sidereal position at his death. Although the orb is rather large (exceeding 3 degrees), here there is a loose zodiacal alignment in the sidereal zodiac, whereas the corresponding positions ofthe Sun and Saturn in the tropical zodiac are some 35 degrees apart.

The obvious question that arises, when looking at the exact zodiacal alignment of the Sun in the sidereal zodiac at the birth of Socrates with its position in the sidereal zodiac at the birth of Christian Oeser, is whether this zodiacal alignment could be a coincidence. The answer is certainly yes, if it is a matter of one isolated reincarnation example. But if it were to transpire that such zodiacal alignments in various different reincarnation examples tend to recur more often in the sidereal zodiac than in the tropical zodiac, then this would supply objective proof that the sidereal zodiac is indeed the authentic astrological zodiac. Given that one of the two zodiacs-either the sidereal zodiac (S) or the tropical zodiac (T)-is the authentic astrological zodiac, and given that the principle of zodiacal alignment is valid, then it is simply a matter of taking a number of reincarnation examples (assuming that they are authentic) and looking for zodiacal alignments in terms of (S) and in terms of (T). Undoubtedly zodiacal alignments will occur in both (S) and (T), but those in terms of one of them will be genuine, whilst those in terms of the other will be due to chance. If more zodiacal alignments occur consistently in terms of (S) than in terms of (T), then it can be concluded objectively (at least, with a high degree of probability) that (S) is the authentic astrological zodiac-and vice versa if the reverse applies.

On this basis, let us apply the same principle as applied above to the reincarnation example Socrates/Christian Oeser to all the eligible reincarnation examples at our disposal from Rudolf Steiner's Karmic Relationship. This comprise a total of twelve reincarnation examples (including Socrates/Christian Oeser), which are listed in Tables 21 and 22. The task is to look for zodiacal alignments of the Sun and Saturn-in terms of (S) and in terms of (T)-in each of these twelve examples, exactly as exemplified in Table 23 in the example Socrates/Christian Oeser. The results are summarized in Table 24.

Notes concerning Table 24

Positions of the Sun (SU) and Saturn (SA) at birth (*) and death (t) in terms of the sidereal zodiac (S) and the tropical zodiac (T), where h denotes heliocentric and g denotes geocentric. See Table 18 notes for abbreviations of the zodiacal signs. See Appendix VII for the computations of the geocentric and heliocentric planetary positions in both the sidereal zodiac and the tropical zodiac for the birth/death positions of the Sun and Saturn in the following table. (In the table these positions are rounded to the nearest degree.) Zodiacal alignments are italicised and are labelled with the letters u, v, w, x, y, z as follows:

zodiacal alignments in the sidereal zodiac (S) are denoted by u, v or w;

zodiacal alignments in the tropical zodiac (T) are denoted by x, y or z.

In the event of more than one zodiacal alignment in a particular series, this is indicated by indices 1, 2, 3, etc. In the event of multiple alignments, more than one letter is used to label the alignment. In the right-hand column of the table the actual orb of difference (in degree and minutes) from perfect alignment is given for each labelled zodiacal alignment u, v, w, x, y, and z.

The symbol / indicates alignment on opposite sides of the zodiac; otherwise alignment takes place on the same side of the zodiac. Perfect alignment is an orb of difference of 0 degrees 0 minutes (0° 00'), where the symbol / is added if the alignment takes place on opposite sides of the zodiac. The maximum orb of difference from perfect alignment that is allowed in the following examples is 3.1° (exactly 3 degrees 6 minutes). An orb of difference greater than 3 degrees 6 minutes from perfect alignment is not counted and is therefore not italicised in the following table. The reincarnation examples are labelled in the left-hand column according to Table 21 (receiving a number) or Table 22 (receiving a letter), and the last example-example (f)-is that of Socrates/Christian Oeser (carried over from Table 23).

Note concerning accuracy: In the majority of reincarnation examples in the following table only the date (day) of birth/death is known and not the time. Only in those cases where the time is known as well as the date are the planetary positions completely accurate. In the remaining cases, where only the date of birth/death is known, the planetary positions are computed for midday. Since the Sun travels approximately I degree in the zodiac per day, this means that the Sun's zodiacal position may be up to ca. ½ degree out, as the Sun travels ca. ½ degree between midday and midnight on a given date. That is, in the event of a birth at midnight, the Sun's actual position would be about ½ degree different from its position computed for midday. In the case of Saturn, which does not travel more than about 8 minutes in the zodiac in one day, its zodiacal position-if computed for midday-will never be more than 4 minutes out (4 minutes being the maximum zodiacal distance travelled by Saturn between midday and midnight). The difference between Saturn's actual position and its position computed for midday is therefore negligible. The overall orb of error, therefore, between the mean zodiacal positions of the Sun and Saturn-computed for midday on a given date-and their actual zodiacal positions will never exceed about ½ degree in the case of the Sun and 4 minutes in the case of Saturn.

Of the twelve reincarnation examples looked at in Table 24, it is evident that zodiacal alignments of Saturn and the Sun occur in eight of them, i.e. that in only four examples there are no alignments in either the sidereal or in the tropical zodiac. Discounting multiple alignments, these eight examples can be analyzed as follows:

alignments in both (S) and (T): 4 examples

alignments in (S) alone:  3 examples

alignments in (T) alone:  1 example

If multiple alignments are taken into consideration, the ratio of alignments in (S) to alignments in (T) is 14: 7, i.e. there are twice as many Saturn/Sun alignments in the sidereal zodiac as in the tropical zodiac.

Considered in relation to the total number of reincarnation examples (12), Saturn/Sun zodiacal alignments occur in the sidereal zodiac in over half of the cases (7 out of 12 cases, which is 58 ⅓ per cent), whilst Saturn/Sun zodiacal alignments in the tropical zodiac zodiac occur in less than half of the cases (5 out of 12 cases, which is 41 ⅔ per cent). Here it must be borne in mind that one of the series of alignments is genuine, whilst the other is random. It is extremely unlikely that the Saturn/Sun zodiacal alignments could occur randomly in over half the examples, as is the case when considered in relation to the sidereal zodiac. Therefore the analysis here indicates that the Saturn/Sun zodiacal alignments in the sidereal zodiac are genuine, whilst those in the tropical zodiac are random, as there is a distinct tendency for these zodiacal alignments (when they occur at all) to occur predominantly in the framework of the sidereal zodiac.

Apart from the extended first "law" of reincarnation yielding a "law" for testing the occurrence of zodiacal alignments in (S) and in (T), as exemplified in the above analysis, a second "law"-already referred to in Chapter 10-is the occurrence of zodiacal alignments of h-Mercury and/or h-Venus from death in one incarnation with their heliocentric positions at birth in the next incarnation. This could be called the "law» of heliocentric alignment of Mercury and Venus. This "law" is again a pseudo-law, as it does not occur in all reincarnation

Table 24

                   
  Example   *SU *g-SA *h-SA t SU t g-SA t h-SA Orb
1 Beatrice S:       22AR U20SG 16SG U1=2°26'
    T:       4TA 2CP X27SG U2= 0° 39'
  H.Grimm S: U123SG 25GE 24GE 1GE U221SG 19SG x =2°51' /
    T: 15CP 17CN 17CN X25GE 14CP 12CP  
3 Gregory VII S:       28TA 8AR 3AR  
    T:       10GE 20AR 15AR  
  Haeckel S: 5AQ 18VI 14VI 22CN 6LE 8LE  
    T: 27AQ 10LI 6LI 16LE 30LE 1 VI  
4 Haroun S: U19AQ V30TA 6GE 29PI W128SC W228SC u =0°54'/
    T: 26AQ 7GE xl4GE 7AR 7SG 2SG V=1°7'
  F.Bacon S: 23CP W25TA 1GE 9AR U20LE 24LE W1=2° 56' /
W2=1° 58' /
    T: 12AQ xl4GE I 9GE 29AR 9VI 14VI x = 0°30'
6 Matilda S:       24CN U18AR V12AR  
    T:       7LE 1TA 25AR U=3°05'
  Emerson S: 12PI 24LE 26LE V14AR u21AR 22AR v = 2°16'
    T: 4AR 16VI 18VI 7TA I5TA 15TA  
9 T.Aquinas S:       9PI U113VI U213VI  
    T:       23P1 28VI 28VI ul = 2°06'/
  R.Steiner S: 15AQ 13LE 13LE u15P1 19L1 16LI u2 = 2°32'/
    T: 7P1 6V1 6V1 9AR I 3SC 1OSC  
11 Hildegard S:       17VI 30GE 24GE  
    T:       ILI I3CN 7CN  
  Soloviev S: 16CP I9AR 25AR 27CN 5SG 10SG  
    T: 8AQ 11TA 17TA 20LE 29SG 3CP  
a Julian S:       2CN 6LI U12L1 u =0°01'
    T:       x4CN 8LI 14L1  
  Tycho Brahe S: 13SG 9SG 9SG u12LI 22LI 24LI x = 3°06'
    T: x1CP 27SG 27SG ISC 12SC 13SC  
b Mu'awiya S:       u11AR 4CN 11CN u = 2 °48' /
    T:       18AR Xy11CN 17CN x= 2 °57' /
  W.Wilson S: 15SG 18GE 18GE 20CP u9LI 3L1 Y1 = 0°17'
    T: x8CP Y111CN Y211CN 14AQ 2SC 27LI Y2 = 0°04'
c Nero S: 25SG 29VI 23VI 18GE 29VI 5LI  
    T: 22SG 26V1 21VI I 6GE 27V1 3LI  
  Rudolf S: 5LE I3CN IOCN I8CP 24CN 24CN  
    T: 28LE 5LE 3LE 11AQ 17LE I7LE  
d Ovid S: OAR 28SG 4CP       x = 2°00'
    T: 27PI xOCP 25SG        
  L.Oliphant S:       9SG 27CN 22CN  
    T:       x2CP 20LE I5LE  
e Plato S:       23TA 11 VI 16V1  
    T:       16TA 3V1 9VI  
  K. Schroer S: 29SG 9TA 14TA 13SG 13SG 14SG  
    T: 2ICP 1GE 6GE 24SG 6CP 7CP  
f Socrates S: U12GE I5LE 21LE 14PI 7SG U21SG U1= 0°11'
    T: 22TA 6LE 12LE 6PI 28SC 23SC  
    S: U1GE 25PI 20PI 19AR 22PI   U2= 0°28'
    T: 23GE I7AR 11AR I2TA 14AR 12AR  

 

Total number of Alignments: u,v,w - 14; x,y,z -7

examples, which is why it is written with inverted commas. This "law" provides a second possibility for testing which zodiac-the sidereal zodiac (S) or the tropical zodiac (T)-is the authentic astrological zodiac, which can be tested in relation to the six reincarnation examples listed in Table 21. These six examples are suitable for testing this "law" as the incarnations are successive and are widely enough separated in time (at least 576 years, amounting to at least 8 degrees of precession) in order to yield significant differences in the comparison of planetary positions in the sidereal zodiac and in the tropical zodiac.

One problem which presents itself here, however, is the lack of exactness in the majority of reincarnation examples, where only the date-and not the time-of birth/death is known. In the case of looking for zodiacal alignments involving the Sun and Saturn this problem is not so acute, since the maximum discrepancy between the Sun's midday position and its position in the event of a birth at midnight on a given date is ½ degree, and for Saturn it is 4 minutes (i.e. negligible)-see Table 24 note concerning accuracy. However, in the case of h-Mercury this discrepancy can amount to 3 degrees, and in the case of h-Venus it can amount to some 50 minutes, i.e. a little less than 1 degree-see Table 25 note concerning accuracy. This problem should be borne in mind when looking

at the tabulation of heliocentric positions of Venus and Mercury (for the six reincarnation examples from Table 21) in Table 25.

Notes concerning Table 25

For the six reincarnation examples from Table 21-labelled with the same number as in Table 21-the zodiacal alignments between h-Mercury and/or h-Venus from birth/death in one incarnation to birth/death in the next incarnation are listed in relation to the sidereal zodiac (S) and the tropical zodiac (T). Although in principle the comparisons are made from birth/death in one incarnation to birth/death in the next incarnation, in only one example-example (4)-are birth and death dates in both incarnations known. As it happens, example (4) is the only example where no alignments occur at all. Thus all the alignments listed in the following table are from death in one incarnation to birth/death in the next incarnation. And of these alignments all but one are from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation. Where the time or approximate time of death is known (as well as the date), this is indicated by (-) on the left-hand side of the orb, and where the time or approximate time of birth in the next incarnation is known, this is indicated by (-) on the right-hand side of the orb. In each case of an alignment, the orb of difference from perfect alignment (0 degrees 0 minutes) is indicated, where the maximum orb of difference allowed is 3.1° (3 degrees 6 minutes). If the alignment is in (S), the corresponding orb of difference in (T) is given for the sake of comparison-and vice versa. See Appendix VII for the computations of the heliocentric planetary positions of Mercury and Venus at birth/death in the following reincarnation examples in both the sidereal zodiac and the tropical zodiac.

Note concerning accuracy: In the majority of reincarnation examples in the following table only the date (day) of birth/death is known and not the time. Only in those cases where the time is known as well as the date are the planetary positions completely accurate. In the remaining cases, where only the date of birth/death is known, the planetary positions are computed for midday. Since h-Mercury can travel up to 6 degrees in the zodiac per day, this means that h-Mercury's zodiacal position may be up to 3 degrees out, as h-Mercury can travel up to 3 degrees between midday and midnight on a given date. That is, in the event of a birth at midnight, h-Mercury's actual position could be about 3 degrees different from its position computed for midday. In the case of h-Venus, which can travel up to I degree 40 minutes in the zodiac per day, its zodiacal position-if computed for midday-can be up to 50 minutes out (50 minutes being the maximum zodiacal distance travelled by h-Venus between midday and midnight). The overall orb or error, therefore, between the mean zodiacal positions of h-Mercury and h-Venus-computed for midday on a given date-their actual zodiacal positions will not exceed about 3 degrees in the case of h-Mercury and 50 minutes in the case of h-Venus.

Abbreviations: ME = Mercury; VE = Venus; h heliocentric; g = geocentric; * = birth; t death; = denotes zodiacal alignment on the same side of the zodiac; / denotes zodiacal alignment on opposite sides of the zodiac.

From Table 25 it emerges that h-Mercury and/or h-Venus align in the zodiac in five of the six reincarnation examples listed in Table 21. Discounting multiple

Table 25

         
example alignments in (S)  orb alignments in (T) orb
1 t h-ME = *h-ME 3°05'   13°33'
    7°55' t h-ME / *h-ME 2°30'
3 t h-VE =*h-VE 1°48'   12°14'
    14°36' t h-VE = t h-ME 2°59'
4        
6 t h-ME = *h-VE 1°07'   10°40'
9 t h-ME = *h-ME 1°58'   6°12'
    8 °07' t h-VE / *11-ME 0°03'
11 t h-VE / *h-ME 2 °29'   11°51'
  T h-VE / *h-VE 1°18'   10°39'

 

alignments, these five examples can be analysed as follows:

alignments in both (S) and (T): 2 examples

alignments in (S) alone:  3 examples

alignments in (T) alone:  0 examples

If multiple alignments are taken into consideration, the ratio of alignments in (S) to alignments in (T) is 6:3, i.e. again there are twice as many h-Mercury/hVenus alignments in the sidereal zodiac as in the tropical zodiac.

Considered in relation to the total of six reincarnation examples listed in Table 21, h-Mercury/h-Venus zodiacal alignments occur in the sidereal zodiac in five of the six cases (83⅓ per cent), whilst h-Mercury/h-Venus zodiacal alignments occur in the tropical zodiac in two of the six cases (33⅓ per cent). One of these series of alignment is genuine, whilst the other is random. Since it is highly unlikely that the h-Mercury/h-Venus zodiacal alignments could occur randomly in over 80 per cent of the examples, as is the case when considered in relation to the sidereal zodiac, the analysis here indicates that the zodiacal alignments in the sidereal zodiac are genuine, whilst those in the tropical zodiac are random. This result is in agreement with the foregoing analysis of the zodiacal alignments of the Sun and Saturn, which also led to the conclusion that the zodiacal alignments in the sidereal zodiac are genuine.

Moreover, looking at the h-Mercury/h-Venus sidereal zodiacal alignments-occurring in five of the six reincarnation examples listed in Table 25-in each case the alignment is from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation, in accordance with the "law" of alignment of h-Mercury/h-Venus in the sidereal zodiac.*

This is the second astrological "law» of reincarnation (the first "law» being that of the preservation of the Sun/Saturn angle from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation-see Appendix III). The second "law» of reincarnation can be stated as follows:

The sidereal zodiacal position(s) of h-Mercury and/or h-Venus at birth in one incarnation tend(s) to align with the sidereal zodiacal position(s) of h-Mercury and/or h-Venus at death in the preceding incarnation. Of the six reincarnation examples listed in Table 5, this "law" is fulfilled in five cases (i.e. in 83 ⅓ per cent of cases). According to the author's research thus far, however, the second "law" of reincarnation does not generally apply with such a high percentage frequency.

Just as there is an extended first "law" of reincarnation (see Appendix 111), so also an extended second "law" of reincarnation may be formulated (as an extension of the above-formulated second "law". This extended second "law" of reincarnation includes also g-Mercury and/or g-Venus in the above formulation, as sometimes the sidereal zodiacal alignments occurring from one incarnation to the next include the geocentric sidereal positions of Mercury and/or Venus.

In the pure form of the second "law" of reincarnation as stated above, only one kind of alignment in the sidereal zodiac is taken into consideration, namely:

(1) h → h : heliocentric in one incarnation with heliocentric in the next.

However, in the case of the extended second "law" of reincarnation three additional kinds of alignment in the sidereal zodiac are taken into account, namely:

(2) h→ g: heliocentric in one incarnation with geocentric in the next;

(3) g→ g: geocentric in one incarnation with geocentric in the next;

(4) g → h: geocentric in one incarnation with heliocentric in the next.

Each of these four cases involves Mercury and/or Venus from death in one incarnation to birth in the next incarnation. Case (I)-the pure form of the second "law" of reincarnation-is by far the most frequently occurring. In the extended second "law" of reincarnation the order of frequency of occurrence of the cases listed-as far as the author has been able to determine through research thus far-is: case (2), then case (3), then case (4).

As an example of the occurrence of the extended second "law" of reincarnation, let us consider once again the reincarnation example Haroun alRashid/Francis Bacon, the one example in Table 25 for which the second "law" of reincarnation-in its pure form-is not fulfilled. At the death of Haroun al-Rashid h-Venus was at 23 ° Aquarius, and at the birth of Sir Francis Bacon g-Venus was at 21° Aquarius. This alignment in the sidereal zodiac (with an orb of 2 degrees) of g-Venus at Francis Bacon's birth with h-Venus at Haroun alRashid's death corresponds to case (2), h→ g. Thus here, although the second "law" of reincarnation in its pure form is not fulfilled, the extended second "law" of reincarnation is fulfilled.

A second example of the extended second "law" of reincarnation is that of Thomas Campanella/Otto Weininger, listed as example (2) in Table 18. At Thomas Campanella's death h-Mercury was at 11° Virgo, and at Otto Weininger's birth g-Mercury was at 11° Pisces. Here this alignment (with an orb of 0 degrees) of g-Mercury at Otto Weininger's birth with h-Mercury at Thomas Campanella's death takes place on opposite sides of the sidereal zodiac. Again it corresponds with case (2), h →g, of the extended second "law" or reincarnation.

The computations of the heliocentric and geocentric sidereal longitudes of Mercury and Venus for these reincarnation examples are given in Appendix VII. There further corroboration of the extended second "law" of reincarnation may be found through looking at further reincarnation examples, e.g. h-Venus (17½° Virgo) at the birth of Emmanuel Swedenborg aligned with g-Venus (14½ ° Virgo) at the death of St. Ignatius of Loyoia-this alignment in the sidereal zodiac (with an orb of 3 degrees) corresponding to case (4), g →h, of the extended second "law" of reincarnation.

These results not only confirm that the sidereal zodiac is the authentic astrological zodiac, but also show that the heliocentric (hermetic) planetary positions are astrologically valid. Further confirmation of this latter finding is presented in the next appendix (Appendix V), which also justifies the refinement of including heliocentric planetary positions on the hermetic chart (based on the Egyptian-Tychonic system) rather than on a heliocentric chart (based on the Copernican system).

Documentation: Brief biographies of the personalities mentioned in Table 22, together with references to them in Rudolf Steiner's karma lectures (abbreviated KR = Karmic Relationships, where the volume number from I to VIII is given and also the date of the lecture in which the reference to the personality in question is made). The personalities are listed alphabetically, and the letter in brackets refers to the lettering of the reincarnation examples in Table 22.

Tycho Brahe (a)                            *10.47 a.m., December 14, 1546,Knudstrup, Scania
                                                         t "morning", October 24, 1601, Prague

KR IV-September 14, 1924: In his last-but-one incarnation Tycho Brahe was the Roman Emperor, Julian the Apostate.

Observing the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 1563 induced Tycho Brahe to begin systematic observation of astronomical phenomena. In this endeavour he was supported by the king of Denmark, who allocated him the island of Hveen and granted money for the building of an observatory there, which Tycho called the Uraniborg. There Tycho collected observations during a period of twenty-one years. Then he left Denmark and moved, together with his recorded observations and most of his instruments, to Prague. Here he was joined by Kepler, who utilized Tycho's observations to discover the laws of planetary motion. In doing so Kepler adopted the Copernican system in favour of Tycho's view that the Moon and the Sun revolve around the Earth, whilst the planets revolve around the Sun. (See Figure 8 for a representation of the Tychonic system. Concerning the Tychonic system as the basis for the hermetic chart in hermetic astrology, see Chapter 5, and also Appendix V.)

Julian the Apostate (a)        A.D. 331/332, Constantinople
                                                 t "night", June 26, 363, Malanga, Phrygia

KR IV-September 14, 1924: Julian the Apostate reincarnated as a woman in the ninth century and then as the astronomer Tycho Brahe in the sixteenth century.

Julian was six years old when his uncle the Emperor, Constantine the Great, died. At about twenty years of age, he became initiated into the pagan mysteries by Maximus of Ephesus. Later he visited Athens to further his philosophical studies. Proclaimed Caesar in 355, he fought successful battles in Gaul, and became Emperor in 360. He then instigated a program of reform in which he tried to reinstate the pagan mystery religion in the place of Christianity, which earned him the title "the Apostate". Shortly after, he became mortally wounded in a battle with the Persians, not far from the banks of the Tigris. His dying words were, "What does it mean to weep for a prince who is going to be reunited to heaven and the stars?" Among his writings the most famous is his Oration to the Sun.

Mu'awiya (b)                *ca. A.D. 600
                                      t April 4, 680, near Damascus

KR I-March 16, 1924: Mu'awiya reincarnated as President Woodrow Wilson.

Mu'awiya was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs. After Mohammed he was the fifth caliph, winning political control over the Islamic community only after a long struggle. His caliphate lasted from 661 until his death in 680. During this time he transferred the center of Moslem government to Damascus and transformed it from a theocracy into an Arab tribal aristocracy. When he had eventually re-established peace and unity within Moslem territory, Mu'awiya embarked upon a campaign of military expansion. His sucess was spectacular, penetrating into Transoxiana in the East and Algeria in the West, but he was unable to capture Constantinople.

Nero (c)                     * "sunrise", December 15, A.D. 37, Anzio
                                    t "after sunrise", June 9, A.D. 68, near Rome

KR 11-April 27, 1924: Nero later reincarnated as Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria.

Nero's mother, Agrippina, was a powerful and domineering woman, who succeeded in arranging for Nero to become emperor by the age of 17. Nero's erratic personal life led to an estrangement with his mother, who-probably at his instigation-became murdered. With his mother out of the way, Nero's lower nature came to full expression. He scandalized Rome by his outrageous behaviour. In the year 64 much of the city became burnt down by a great fire, allegedly started by Nero himself. Nero later ruthlessly executed a number of leading aristocrats-including his former tutor Seneca-on account of a conspiracy to kill the emperor. After further mishaps, Nero lost the support of the Senate, which had become disgusted by his decadent life-style. Galba, commander of the Spanish legions, became proclaimed emperor, and on hearing the news Nero committed suicide.

Christian Oeser (f)              *June 14, 1791, Pressburg (now Bratislava)
                                                t May 2, 1850, Pressburg

KR IV-September 21, 1924: German edition (Dornach, Switzerland, 1960), p.162: Christian Oeser was the reincarnation of Socrates.

Christian Oeser is the best known pen-name of the many pseudonyms chosen by the writer Tobias Gottfried Schroer (Chr. Oeser being an anagram of Schroeer). The course of Schroer's life seems quite straightforward, as a professor at the Evangelical Lyceum in his home town, but it was accompanied by constant worries and problems caused by his writing activity. Heavily attacked by the censor in Hungary, Schroer chose to write under a variety of pseudonyms. His rich literary output includes poems, several plays, and a number of polemical writings as a fighter for spiritual freedom. He was much loved by his pupils, but owing to his use of pseudonyms they had little idea of his significance as a writer. He was of a peaceful, loving nature-endowed with considerable artistic talent-and strove constantly after high ideals. His wife Theresa bore him five children. (The oldest son, Karl Julius Schroer, is also referred to in this documentation.)

Laurence Oliphant (d)           *1829, Capetown
                                                   t 4.00 p.m.. December 23, 1888, London

KR VIII-August 24, 1924: Laurence Oliphant was the reincarnation of the poet Ovid.

Laurence Oliphant studied law in England and became a journalist. He travelled widely on various assignments, including a period as secretary to Lord Elgin, governor-general of Canada, whom he also accompanied to China and Japan. After further travels and literary activity, he became a Member of Parliament in England, but resigned after only two years to join the community life in the United States of the spirtualist-prophet Thomas Lake Harris. Both Oliphant and his wife, and also Oliphant's mother, became disciples of Harris, but eventually all became disillusioned. Oliphant and his wife later settled at Haifa in Israel, where she died. Oliphant then returned to England and completed writing his last book Scientific Religion, which reveals his leaning towards religious mysticism. Oliphant was a brilliant writer, endowed with an alert and versatile intellect, whose sympathetic character won him a wide circle of friends.

Ovid (d)                   *ca. 4.25 a.m., March 20, 43 B.C., Sulmo, near Rome
                                 t A.D. 17/18, Tomis on the Black Sea

KR VIII-August 24, 1924: Ovid later reincarnated as Laurence Oliphant.

Ovid's early poems were mainly on the theme of love, and enjoyed a wide popularity among the high society of Rome. Shortly after completing his great masterpiece, Metamorphoses, Ovid fell out of favour with the emperor, Augustus, and for an indiscretion was suddenly banished to Tomis on the Black Sea. There he spent the last nine or ten years of his life, where he languished in exile. Ovid's poetry exerted an enormous influence through the centuries, on into the Renaissance. The Metamorphoses, in particular-which reveals Ovid's full literary powers: his wit and rhetorical brilliance, his knowledge of mythology, his vivid imagination and his talent for descriptive narrative-was especially loved as one of the great classics of antiquity, and was drawn on heavily by Shakespeare.

Plato (e)                            *427 B.C., Athens
                                            t May 12, 347 B.C., Athens

KR IV-September 23, 1924: Plato later reincarnated as a nun in the tenth century and then as Karl Julius Schroer in the nineteenth century.

The Greek philosopher Plato is the most well-known of Socrates' pupils. Plato lived most of his life in Athens, where he founded the Academy, one of the greatest philosophical schools of antiquity. Among his many works which have survived intact, the Republic is the most famous, in which he outlines a utopian city-state. At the end of the Republic the incarnations of the soul through cycles of birth and death is discussed. Plato and his pupil Aristotle are reckoned as the greatest philosophers of antiquity, both having exerted-and continuing to exert-an enormous influence upon the development of the intellectual life of western man


Crown Prince Rudolf of

Austria (c)                                   *10.15 p.m., August 21, 1858, near Vienna
                                                      t January 30, 1889, near Vienna

KR II-April 27, 1924: Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria was the reincarnation of Nero.

Rudolf was born the son and heir of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria. He received a strict Catholic upbringing, but nevertheless as a young man he found himself plagued with disturbing thoughts. This later became diagnosed as a nervous disorder. Rudolf's marriage to the princess of Belgium was arranged by the emperor. To begin with the married life of Rudolf and his childlike bride Stefanie was tolerable, but it became threatened when Rudolf started drinking heavily and staying out late at night. Plagued by coughs and headaches, Rudolf then started to take morphine. He seemed to lose all control of himself, and spoke of committing suicide. Seventeen-year old Baroness Vetsera became his companion and agreed to die with him. One January night, after shooting her, he committed suicide.

Karl Julius Schroer (e)             *January 11, 1825, Pressburg (now Bratislava)
                                                      t December 16, 1900, Vienna

KR IV-September 23, 1924: Karl Julius Schroer was the reincarnation of Plato.

Karl Julius Schroer was the oldest son of the poet and playwright Tobias Gottfried Schroer (pseudonym Christian Oeser, also documented in this appendix). After teaching in his home town of Pressburg, in 1867 he became Professor of German Literature at the Vienna Technical Institute, and was responsible from 1882 onwards for the publication of a critical edition of a Goethe's writings. Schroer was an idealist and felt a deep relationship to Goethe, especially the Platonic idealistic side of Goethe, but he was unable to fully appreciate Goethe's scientific writings. Therefore he suggested that the young Rudolf Steiner should edit Goethe's scientific works. (See Appendix Ill documentation for a brief biography of Rudolf Steiner.)

Socrates (f)                                 *May 20, 467 B.C., Athens
                                                      t March I, 399 B.C., Athens

KR IV-September 21, 1924: German edition (Dornach, Switzerland, 1960), p. 162: Socrates later reincarnated as Christian Oeser.

Socrates wrote nothing, but evidence of his life and activity comes from the writings of Plato and Xenophon. According to these sources, Socrates became famous for his method of argumentation. As a dialectician of formidable power, he was able with masterly skill to expose fallacies of thought. He proved to be very popular with young people. The combination of his dialectical skill and his magnetic appeal to the youth of Athens led him to be charged with impiety and with corrupting the youth of the city. Sentenced to death, Socrates-before drinking the cup of hemlock-discussed the immortality of the soul. (The death of Socrates is narrated in Plato's Phaedo.)

Woodrow Wilson (b)                       *11.45 p.m., December 28, 1856, Staunton VA
                                                            t February 3, 1924, Washington DC

KR I-March 16, 1924: Woodrow Wilson was the reincarnation of Mu'awiya.

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the twenty-eighth president of the United States. After studying law, Wilson went on to write a doctoral thesis analyzing the American political system, and later became a professor of political science. His academic career lasted from 1886 until 1910, when he entered politics. Wilson became president of the United States in 1912 and remained in power for two terms of office until 1920. During World War I he tried at first-unsuccessfully-to negotiate peace, but in 1917 he led the American people into war against Germany. He is remembered for his Fourteen Points, presented during the war for the establishment of peace on just principles, which he instisted upon when signing the armistice at the end of the war. Wilson was also a primary architect of the League of Nations, drafted at the peace conference at Versailles. However, the Treaty of Versailles did not stand the test of time, as is evident from the occurrence of World War II.

* Cf. Neil Michelsen, The American Sidereal Ephemeris (San Diego, 1981), introduction.

* See R. Powell, The Zodiac: A Historical Survey (San Diego, 1984), for a brief historical sketch of the sidereal zodiac: its original formulation by the Babylonians, its replacement by the tropical zodiac, and its re-emergence in the twentieth century.

* See, for example, Willi Sucher, The Drama of the Universe (Larkfield, 1958), a book which is dedicated to heliocentric astrological research.

* It may be objected that in the analysis in this appendix of h-Mercury/h-Venus and Sun/Saturn zodiacal alignments the number of reincarnation examples is too small to be conclusive. However, numerous other reincarnation examples studied by the author reveal the same result, i.e. the large majority of alignments occur within the sidereal zodiac.

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